Lactoferrin, Lactoperoxidase, Lysozyme
Peptides & Proteins
Phospholipids & Milk Fat Lipids
Bovine colostrum contains hundreds of thousands of antibodies, so many that we should consider the cow a “walking pharmaceutical factory.” These antibodies develop within twenty-four hours of a cow coming in contact with a pathogen (i.e., pathogens in the soil, air, feed, or from human contact), and are subsequently passed into colostrum and milk. Bovine colostrum contains roughly 40 times more antibodies than raw milk, yet super pasteurization goes even further by destroying what remains of these antibodies. Click HERE for References.
Immunoglobulins in bovine colostrum bind to disease-causing pathogens on the mucosal surfaces of the GI tract, thereby preventing them from colonizing and causing infection. This modulation by the immune system creates passive immunity for the patient.
IgA (serum IgA) – similar to sIgA, but in monomeric form; responsible for humoral immunity of mucosal surfaces.
sIgA (secretory IgA) – dimer of serum IgA; secretory component protects it from enzymatic degradation; helps molecule pass through intestinal lining; prevents attachment of pathogens (viruses and bacteria) to mucosal surfaces; presence in colostrum is probably to prevent gastrointestinal infections.
IgD – acts as antigen receptor on the surfaces of B lymphocytes; highly antiviral.
IgE – binds to receptors on mast cells and basophils; when an antigen (i.e. pollen) reacts with the IgE antibody, the mast cell or basophil releases histamine and other chemicals to produce an allergic reaction; also attracts IgG, complement and phagocytic cells; highly antiviral.
IgEbf (IgE binding factor) – acts to suppress action of IgE, which may give anti-allergic role to colostrum.
IgG – protects against circulating bacteria and viruses; neutralizes bacterial toxins; triggers the complement system and binds to antigens, enhancing the effectiveness of phagocytic cells.
IgM – the first antibody produced in response to initial exposure to an antigen; involved in aggregating antigens and reactions involving complement.
Antibodies against a wide variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, protozoans, and fungi, have been identified in bovine colostrum. Many of these appear in bovine colostrum from pasture-raised cows as the pathogens occur naturally in the grasses eaten by the cows. Female cows produce antibodies against every pathogen they encounter, and subsequently pass this immunity on to their calves.
ANTIBODIES AGAINST BACTERIA
The antibodies to various human-acquired pathogens are present in bovine colostrum because pasture-raised cows encounter many of the same pathogens that occur naturally in the grasses they eat. Human contact also exposes cows to bacteria which commonly infect people. Bovine colostrum has been tested for the active antibodies against the following disease-causing bacteria:
Bacillus cereus – food poisoning
Streptococcus pyogenes – strep throat and other strep diseases, septicemia
Streptococcus agalactiae – if passed to the female genitourinary tract, causes septicemia and meningitis in newborns
Streptococcus pneumoniae – pneumonia, ear infections, bacterial meningitis
Streptococcus mutans – periodontal disease, tooth decay, endocarditis, arteriosclerosis
Staphylococcus epidermidis – causes biofilms on plastic devices, such as surgical implants and catheters
Staphylococcus aureus – food poisoning, atopic dermatitis, respiratory disease, pneumonia, meningitis, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, toxic shock syndrome, bacteremia, and sepsis; antibiotic-resistant forms of S. aureus (MRSA) have become problematic.
Listeria monocytogenes – listeriosis (food poisoning), meningitis in newborns (acquired transvaginally at birth)
Yersinia enterocolitica – food poisoning, yersiniosis (bloody diarrhea and fever), septicemia
Escherichia coli – can cause many common bacterial infections, such as cholecystitis, bacteremia, cholangitis, urinary tract infections, traveler’s diarrhea, meningitis and pneumonia
Escherichia coli O157:H7 – enterohemorrhagic strain of E. coli that can lead to kidney failure
Haemophilus influenzae – pneumonia and acute bacterial meningitis
Campylobacter jejuni – food poisoning
Helicobacter pylori – leading cause of peptic ulcers
Salmonella enteritidis – food poisoning
Salmonella typhimurium – salmonellosis, enteric fevers (typhoid and paratyphoid)
Klebsiella pneumoniae –pneumonia, meningitis, liver abscesses, endophthalimitis
Propionibacterium acnes – acne
Candida albicans – not a bacteria but a fungus; opportunistic oral (thrush) and genital (vaginal yeast) infections
Vibrio cholerae– bacteria that causes cholera. Cholera toxin B, which causes the disease, is bound by sialyllactose, which is found in colostrum and milk.
ANTIBODIES AGAINST VIRUSES
The antibodies to various human-acquired pathogens are present in colostrum because pasture-raised cows encounter many of the same pathogens that occur naturally in the grasses they eat. Human contact also exposes cows to viruses which commonly infect people. Bovine colostrum has been tested for the active antibodies against the following disease-causing viruses:
Adenovirus – responsible for 5-10% of upper respiratory infections in children as well as a variety of adult infections including respiratory disease, conjunctivitis, and gastroenteritis. Lactoferrin prevents infection when present prior to viral adsorption stage.
Alphavirus – cause of numerous diseases in humans, including arthritis, encephalitis, rashes and fever. Includes Sindbis virus and Semliki Forest virus. Lactoferrin interferes with the virus-receptor interaction, blocking entrance into cells.
Dengue virus – causes a painful infectious fever in tropical countries. Colostrum has antibodies against Dengue virus.
Echovirus – mainly affecting children, this virus can cause an acute febrile illness and is the most common cause of aseptic meningitis. Lactoferrin blocks viral attachment to cell receptors.
Enterovirus 71 – one of major causative agents of hand, foot and mouth disease and serious neurological diseases; inhibited by lactoferrin.
Hantavirus – causes potentially fatal diseases in humans, including hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and hantavirus pulmonary disease. Lactoferrin inhibits absorption to target cells.
Hepatitis C virus – lactoferrin prevents infection by binding to an envelope protein of the virus.
Herpes viruses – proline-rich polypeptides have proven very effective in the prevention of herpes virus infections.
HIV-1 – HIV reverse transcriptase, protease and integrase, enzymes crucial to its life cycle, are inhibited by lactoferrin.
Human Papilloma virus – implicated in cervical and other sexually-transmitted cancers. Lactoferrin blocks entry into target cells.
Japanese encephalitis – mosquito-borne virus is related to St. Louis virus. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
Measles – 8 of 9 patients suffering respiratory failure from severe measles recovered, and one patient with encephalitis was clear of symptoms within two weeks of the last dose.
Polio virus – cause of poliomyelitis. Immunoglobulins in colostrum show antipoliomyelitic activity. Lactoferrin prevents attachment to the gastrointestinal wall.
Respiratory syncytial virus – major cause of lower respiratory tract infections during infancy and childhood. Lactoferrin blocks entry into cells.
Rotavirus – a major cause of fatal diarrhea among young children worldwide. Colostrum inhibits rotavirus infection.
St. Louis virus – mosquito-borne virus causes St. Louis encephalitis, which is related to Japanese encephalitis. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
West Nile virus – mosquito-borne virus causes a fever or encephalitis or meningitis. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
Yellow fever virus – mosquito-borne virus causes an acute viral hemorrhagic disease that may cause liver damage. Colostrum has antibodies against this virus.
GLYCOPROTEINS – proteins with sugars attached, inhibit pathogens by competing for binding sites on the intestinal wall, binding directly to pathogens, and by other means. Some of the most significant glycoproteins are from the Transferrin family.
Lactoferrin or lactotransferrin is an iron-binding protein with many functions and is an important bioactive in colostrum: potent, non-specific antimicrobial, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and protozoan parasites; essential growth factor for lymphocytes; stimulates activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes; strongly augments natural killer cell and lymphokine-activated killer cell cytotoxic activity; powerful antioxidant and anti-inflammatory; stimulates production of IL-18; inhibits tryptase, an enzyme secreted by mast cells and possible causative agent of asthma; has anti-cancer properties; decreases severity and longitudinal prevalence of diarrhea in children; inhibits intestinal damage from Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli; and shows promise for osteoarthritis treatment. As a glycoprotein, lactoferrin competes with pathogens for binding sites on the intestinal wall or binds directly to pathogens. Lactoferricin – an amphipathic, cationic peptide generated by the pepsin-mediated digestion of lactoferrin. Transferrin – an iron transporting protein similar in structure to lactoferrin. Click HERE for References.
Lactoperoxidase combines with thiocyanate and hydrogen peroxide to form a very potent antimicrobial agent. Secreted from mammary, salivary, and other mucosal glands, lactoperoxidase helps protect the body fagainst bacterial infections.
Lysozyme is a potent antimicrobial which often works in tandem with lactoferrin to kill bacteria and other microorganisms. Lysozyme has been shown to destroy bacteria on contact. It may also have use as a topical antibiotic.
PRPs or Colostrinin – these are short chain peptides (500-5000MW) with a high concentration of the amino acid proline. They are also called: info-peptides, info-proteins, cytokine precursors, colostrinin and, or immune-modulators. PRPs support the regulation of the thymus, the gland responsible for the normal development of immunologic function in the body. PRPs are richly varied immune and inflammatory modulators and act as signaling molecules; induce white blood cell proliferation and the production of a number of cytokines. PRPs modulate the cytokine system by stimulating the production of a wide range of cytokines, including the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), which initiates the inflammatory cascade of cytokine production, and interferon-gamma (INF-γ), and the anti-inflammatory cytokines interleukins-6 and -10 (IL-6 and IL-10).
Some PRPs act against pathogens by modulating the immune system to rally a defense against an infection, especially gut-based infections that cause massive diarrhea. PRPs increase the immune system’s activity when it’s necessary to fight off an infection; block reproduction of pathogens; increase natural killer cell activity; and activate macrophages and T-cells. Other PRPs quell the immune system’s activity to prevent tissue damage once the infection has been attenuated. The application of PRPs is immunotherapy, anti-viral, anti-allergy, anti-inflammatory, and restoration of normal cell function. Because PRPs are such a richly varied immune and inflammatory modulator, they are helpful in ailments characterized by an overactive immune system (allergies, asthma and autoimmune diseases), including cognitive/neurodegenerative disorders. Click HERE for References.
Cytokines are hormone-like, low molecular weight proteins which regulate the intensity and duration of the immune response and mediate cell-to-cell communication. Cytokines help increase T-cell activity and stimulate production of immunoglobulins. Supplementation with liposomal colostrum results in higher levels of white blood cells, lymphocytes, and cytokines, all of which lead to greater immune responsiveness and reduced infection severity.
Chemokines – small, inducible, secreted, pro-inflammatory cytokines acting primarily as chemoattractants and activators of specific types of leukocytes; have been implicated in autoimmune conditions.
Protease inhibitors help colostrum components survive digestion by inhibiting digestive enzymes. They also enhance absorption of vital nutrients.
κ-caseino glycomacropeptide – a peptide from the casein fraction of milk which interferes with the binding of viruses and bacteria in the intestine, binds cholera and E. coli endotoxins, promotes the growth of helpful bacteria in the gut, helps modulate the immune system and helps prevent the formation of arterial thrombi (clots), a leading cause of heart attack and stroke.
κ-caseinoglycopeptide – a peptide produced by digestion of kappa-casein, found in both bovine and human colostrum and milk, which is absorbed into the blood serum and which has antithrombic properties, preventing platelet aggregation.
Hemopexin – a transporter and binder of free heme molecules in body. Has antioxidant function by preventing participation of heme in oxygen radical reactions in tissues. Also plays a key role in the homeostasis of nitric oxide. Known to suppress tumor growth. It may also have an anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing neutrophil accumulation and phagocytosis and by inhibiting the Mg++ dependent adhesion of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Haptoglobin – a protein binder of free hemoglobin. Binding of haptoglobin to free hemoglobin prevents hemoglobin-induced oxidative tissue damage, so haptoglobin effectively acts as an antioxidant. Increased levels in acute phase inflammation apparently act to selectively antagonize lipopolysaccharide (LPS) inflammatory effects by suppressing monocyte production of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-10 and IL-12 while it does not inhibit anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-8 and IL-1 receptor antagonist.
Thrombospondin/u> – extracellular proteins involved in cell-to-cell and cell-to-matrix communication, including cell adhesion, platelet aggregation, cell proliferation and tissue repair. Potent inhibitor of angiogenesis and tumor growth. Also interact with coagulation and anticoagulant factors in blood.
MILK GLOBULE PROTEINS
Mucin 1 (MUC1) – major mucin glycoprotein expressed on surface of mammary epithelial cells; probably a lactation artifact.
BAMP (Bovine Associated Mucoprotein) – found only in milk and colostrum fat globule membranes, other secretory fluids and fetal serum, but not in adult serum.
Lactadherin – potent phospholipid-blocking anticoagulant, binds to rotavirus to help prevent viral diarrhea; also known as milk fat globule-EFG factor 8 protein..
Adipophilin – necessary for lipid production and secretion into milk during lactation; also known as adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) or perilipin-2.
Butyrophilin – required for the regulated secretion of milk droplets. Also appears to be anti-inflammatory by suppressing inflammatory cytokines interferon-γ, IL-2, IL-12, GMCSF.
CD36 (fatty acid translocase) – membrane protein expressed by mammary epithelial cells. Fatty acid transporter in milk production.
α2-macroglobulin -- the largest major nonimmunoglobulin protein in plasma; manufactured primarily in the liver; acts as an anticoagulant by inhibiting thrombin and other proteases.
β2-microglobulin (thymotaxin, lactollin) – light chain of histocompatibility class I antigen. Lactollin is the bovine form of human β2-microglobulin. Has structural homology with sections of both IgG light and heavy chains.
Lipocalins – a family of small, secreted proteins that transport steroids, bilins, retinols, and lipids.
β-lactoglobulin – milk antigen, one of major causes of cow’s milk allergy, has antimicrobial effects, including antiviral activity.
Fatty acid binding protein – binds long chain fatty acids to intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes), plays a role in the regulation of macrophage inflammatory activity and cholesterol uptake.
Clusterin (Apolipoprotein J) – plays important role in cell-cell and cell-substratum interactions, also acts as an extracellular molecular “chaperone” that “steers” proteins into cells.
Casein – principal protein fraction of cow’s milk. Casein in colostrum is immune-related with antioxidant properties. It is not the same as caseins in milk which are for digestion and conversion to amino acids. Casein in colostrum does not produce an allergic reaction. Whole casein can be further separated into:
κ-casein – inhibits attachment of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae in gut.
Orosomucoids (α1-acid glycoprotein) - increased levels and altered forms of orosomucoids are associated with inflammation; anti-inflammatory mediator, particularly in the endothelium of capillaries, where it inhibits the effect of histamine on the capillary.
Folate-binding protein – protein in colostrum and milk that binds folate, allowing for slower absorption into body, which prevents loss of excess folate through urine.
α-lactalbumin – a modifier protein which modifies the action of galactosyl transferase to a lactose synthase. It binds divalent cations (such as Ca++ and Zn++) and may facilitate the absorption of essential minerals. Provides a well-balanced supply of amino acids to the newborn. Most common protein in human milk (20-25% of total protein), but only 2-5% of total protein in bovine milk. Chemically related to lysozyme and has a weak lytic ability.
Multimeric α-lactalbumin (MAL) – a folded variety of α-lactalbumin which has the ability to kill transformed cells (i.e. cancer cells) by apoptosis (programmed cell death) by altering mitochondrial membrane permeability. Also has anti-infective ability.
Prealbumin (transthyretin) -- a protein made primarily by the liver and is used as a building block to make other proteins.
Albumin – the main protein of human blood plasma and functions primarily to regulate the colloidal osmotic pressure of blood.
Complement (C3) – components of the innate immune system that act to amplify the response and activation of the cell-killing membrane attack complex that attacks pathogens.
β-Defensin – an antimicrobial peptide secreted by the skin and respiratory tract.
Oligosaccharides – provide protection from pathogens by competing for binding sites on intestinal lining. Also support growth of beneficial bacteria.
Apelin – found in bovine colostrum, is endogenous ligand of human orphan APJ receptor; stimulates proliferation of gastric cells; inhibits entry of HIV into the cells. Function in human colostrum is probably to modulate immune response in neonates.
Angiotensin-I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and competitive substrates:
Albutensin A – ileum contracting and relaxing activity
Cathelicidin peptides – part of the innate immune system, found to be highly effective against otherwise resistant bacteria found in cystic fibrosis, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Stentrophomonas maltophilia, Achromobacter xylosoxidans.
Motilin – peptide gastrointestinal hormone, controls pattern of smooth muscle contraction in upper GI tract, presence in human milk confirmed, but physiological significance unknown.
Erythropoietin (EPO) – glycoprotein hormone that stimulates red blood cell production; plays an important role in the brain's response to neuronal injury and is involved in the wound healing process.
Estrogens – steroid hormones/female sex hormones that bind to and activate estrogen receptors which in turn modulate the expression of many genes; an artifact of maternal serum.
Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone (GnRH) (gonadoliberin) – hypothalamic peptide hormone which stimulates the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland to secrete luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); artifact from maternal blood serum.
Growth Hormone/Somatotropin – pituitary hormone which promotes body growth, fat mobilization, and inhibition of glucose utilization.
Insulin – peptide hormone produced by beta cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas; promotes glucose utilization, protein synthesis, fat storage; first milking contains high levels and subsequently tapers off.
Leptin – protein hormone secreted by adipose tissue; plays a key role in regulating energy intake and expenditure, including appetite and hunger, metabolism, and behavior.
Lutenizing Hormone-releasing Hormone (LHRH) (luliberin) – a glycoprotein gonadotropic hormone that acts with follicle-stimulating hormone to promote ovulation and promotes secretion of androgen and progesterone; an artifact of maternal serum.
Melatonin – produced by pineal gland and acts as an endocrine hormone; involved in circadian rhythms.
Progesterone – so-called pregnancy hormone which prepares the corpus luteum and placenta for pregnancy; artifact of maternal serum.
Prolactin – pituitary hormone which stimulates mother’s production of milk; artifact from maternal serum.
Relaxin – peptide hormone which mediates hemodynamic changes occurring during pregnancy; relaxes pelvic ligaments during delivery; likely involved in mother’s nipple development; artifact of maternal serum.
Somatostatin – peptide hormone which inhibits the release of somatotropin and the release of insulin and gastrin.
Thyrotropin-releasing Hormone (TRH) – hypothalamic hormone which stimulates the release of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and prolactin from the anterior pituitary; artifact of maternal serum.
Growth factors are proteins or steroid hormones that act as signaling molecules between cells which play an important role in maintaining the human body by stimulating cell growth, proliferation, differentiation and migration; responsible for repair of leaky gut epithelia; bone remodeling and maintenance; fracture repair; wound healing; increased collagen production; and growth of blood vessels into damaged areas. There is an increasing use of growth factors for the treatment of hematologic and oncologic diseases and cardiovascular diseases. The most important growth factors are Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF-1), Transforming Growth Factors (TGF), and Epithelial Growth Factor (EFG). Click HERE for References.
Insulin-like Growth Factor I (IGF-1) – protein hormone with a similar structure to insulin and a major growth factor in adults; helps wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in the wound; enhances bone healing in the elderly; decreases with age.
Insulin-like Growth Factor II (IGF-2) – protein hormone with a similar structure to insulin and a major fetal growth factor; promotes growth during gestation.
Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP-3) – the major IGFBP in bovine colostrum and milk that binds both IGF and lactoferrin; with lactoferrin, enters epithelial cells’ nuclei and affects apoptotic signaling.
Transforming Growth Factor Alpha (TGF-α) – produced in macrophages, brain cells, and keratinocytes and induces epithelial development; stimulates neural cell proliferation in adult injured brain.
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 (TGF- β1) – controls cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis; stimulates production of IgA by B lymphocytes; vital factor in skeletal growth, bone mass maintenance, and fracture healing.
Transforming Growth Factor Beta 2 (TGF-β2) – another isoform of TGF-β with similar activity as TGF-β1; known to suppress the effects of interleukin dependent T cell tumors.
Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) – stimulates blood vessel growth; helps promote wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in the wound; helps maintain normal bone and repair fractures.
Epithelial/Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) – stimulates the proliferation and differentiation of epidermal cells, including the intestinal lining, to maintain gut integrity; helps promote wound healing by stimulating cell proliferation in wound.
Betacellulin – expression is high in the pancreas and intestine; believed to influence development of the neonatal gastrointestinal tract, and to regulate the differentiation of pancreatic beta cells during development and regenerate beta cells in adults.
Colony-Stimulating Factor-1 (CSF-1) / Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (M-CSF) – stimulates stem cells to differentiate into blood cells macrophages, and bone marrow progenitor cells; appear to have a regulatory role in cells of the female reproductive tract, including cancers.
Granulocyte Colony Stimulating Factor (G-CSF) – part of the CSF family of growth factors that increases growth, differentiation and activation of granulocytes (eosinophils, basophils, neutrophils); appears to act locally in the gut.
Platelet-Derived Growth Factor (PDGF) – has significant role in angiogenesis and in bone metabolism as a mitogen for osteoblasts; stimulates fibroblast division in wound and ulcer healing.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) – creates new blood vessels during embryonic development, new blood vessels after injury, muscle following exercise, and collateral circulation to bypass blocked vessels; important in the healing of injuries by providing blood supply to damaged areas; a member of the PGDF family.
Enzymes facilitate chemical reactions that permit the functionality of colostrum.
Alkaline phosphatase – a hydrolase enzyme that removes phosphate groups from nucleotides, proteins and alkaloids; is present in all tissues throughout the entire body, and most concentrated in the liver, bile ducts, kidneys, bones, and placenta.
Amylase – enzyme in human saliva that catalyzes the breakdown of starch into sugars when food digestion begins in the mouth.
Carbonic anhydrase – enzyme involved in the breakdown of sugars and fat for energy.
Glycosyl transferases – enzyme involved in the glycosylation of proteins in the milk fat globule membrane.
β-galactoside α-2,6-sialyltransferase – enzyme required for the generation of B cell surface antigens.
b-4-galactosyltransferase – family of enzymes that function in lactose biosynthesis.
Matrix metalloproteinases – family of zinc-containing endopeptidases that play a key role in both physiological and pathological tissue remodeling.
Peroxidase – enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of an organic substrate in the presence of hydrogen peroxide.
Superoxide dismutase – enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide, which provides antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen.
Telomerase – enzyme that adds DNA sequence repeats to the end of DNA strands in chromosomes to prevent loss of important DNA sequences during replication. Length of telomere determines the number of times a cell can divide.
Thiamine pyrophosphatase – enzyme which cleaves thiamine pyrophosphate.
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine: Polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase – a glycosyltransferase.
Xanthine Oxidase – enzyme involved in the catabolism of purines in humans and other animals.
Bovine colostrum contains antioxidants, one of which is particularly significant –glutathione (and its precursors, cysteine, glycine and glutamic acid). Glutathione (GSH) is a naturally occurring peptide with a wide variety of functions beyond neutralizing free radicals. Glutathione regulates other less effective antioxidants; has anti-viral and anti-bacterial activity; helps boost the immune system; increases muscle strength in athletic performance; is critical to proper functioning of lymphocytes; and neutralizes carcinogens.
Phospholipids – an excellent source of choline; comprises the protective membrane around liposomal delivery colostrum to ensure bioavailability and effectiveness.
Phosphatidylserine (PS) – possible health benefits include reduced risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia in elderly persons; stimulates dopamine production, which regulates memory; demonstrated positive effect in early Alzheimer’s treatment.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) (Lecithin) – a major constituent of all cell membranes which plays a role in membrane-mediated cell signaling; exhibits protective effect on the liver, and accelerates recovery from liver damage.
Phosphatidylinositol (PI) (Inositol) – necessary for proper functioning of the brain, nerves, and muscle; helps prevent build-up of fatty deposits in the liver; an essential nutrient for proper development in newborns.
Phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) (Cephalin) – comprises the backbone of cell membranes and has role in myelin structure and nerve endings in the brain; demonstrated cholesterol-lowering effect.
Sphingomyelin – a type of sphingolipid found in the membranous myelin sheath surrounding some nerve cell axons; initiates cellular defense, tumor suppression and cholesterol mobilization; increases membrane rigidity.
Fatty Acids – carboxylic acids derived from triglycerides or phospholipids that become fuel sources when metabolized; yield large quantities of ATP for the brain, heart and skeletal muscle.
Linoleic acid – a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid present in many vegetable oils; essential to biosynthesis of arachidonic acid and some prostaglandins.
Dihomo-gamma-linoleic acid – a polyunsaturated omega-6 fatty acid found only in trace amounts in animal products.
Alpha-linoleic acid – an essential omega-3 fatty acid present in many seeds, nuts, and vegetable oils.
Eicosatrienoic acid – a polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acid.
Prosaposin – a glycoprotein precursor for saposins A, B, C, and D.
Saposins A, B, C, D – facilitate the catabolism of glycosphingolipids with short oligosaccharide groups.
Tocopherols – a series of organic compounds, many with vitamin E activity; Vitamin E deficiency causes neurological problems due to poor nerve conduction.
Cholesterol – a sterol manufactured in the liver which serves as an essential structural component of animal cell membranes and is necessary to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity; also a precursor in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, bile acids, and vitamin D.
Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins. Colostrum contains nine essential amino acids and nine non-essential amino acids. Although supplementation is popular, especially among athletes, most claims, such as muscle building, are unsubstantiated. In fact, excess amino acids can interfere with the action of prescription drugs or hormones or worsen preexisting diseases. Amino acid supplementation can be of benefit in cases of deficiencies, such as those due to weight loss diets, poor lifestyle behaviors, or unhealthy environmental conditions.
ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
Isoleucine – a branched chain amino acid used in body building. Hemodialysis patients often have low plasma isoleucine levels and require supplementation.
Leucine – reduces protein breakdown and increases skeletal muscle protein synthesis; required for a healthy immune system; used to treat hepatic encephalopathy.
Histidine increases zinc secretion, absorption, and elimination; suppresses food intake and fat accumulation in rats; essential to normal sexual functioning; may relieve symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis; used to make histamine; controls diarrhea; increases calcium absorption; scavenges reactive oxygen species and inhibits lipid peroxidation. Childhood deficiencies can result in growth and mental retardation and impaired speech.
Methionine – can help in some cases of schizophrenia by lowering histamine levels in the blood. Deficiency can result in edema and susceptibility to infection, atherosclerosis and hair loss.
Lysine – required for growth, tissue repair, and antibody production, hormones, and enzymes; promotes concentration and proper use of fatty acids as energy.
Threonine – requires vitamin B6, magnesium and niacin to be utilized properly in the body; serine and glycine may be synthesized from it; excessive threonine can cause formation of excess urea and consequent ammonia toxicity.
Phenylalanine – functions as a neurotransmitter.
Valine – branched chain amino acid that promotes mental vigor, muscle coordination, and emotional calm; helps prevent nervous and digestive disorders. When taken with leucine, valine decreases the risk of side effects from muscle building.
Tryptophan – used by brain along with vitamin B6, niacin and magnesium to produce serotonin; acts as an antidepressant to reduce anxiety and tension.
NON-ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS
Arginine – a precursor of nitric oxide; reduces healing time of injuries (particularly bone); helps decrease blood pressure; essential to normal pituitary gland functioning.
Cystine – readily converted to cysteine. When metabolized, cysteine yields sulfuric acid which is used to detox.
Glutamic Acid – primarily used by the brain and important for learning and memory; converts ammonia in the brain to glutamine.
Alanine – synthesized in muscle from branched chain amino acids; helps regulate blood sugar levels; utilized by the liver for gluconeogenesis. Deficiency may lead to muscle loss and poor glucose tolerance.
Tyrosine – a neurotransmitter that stimulates and modifies brain activity. Supplementation can help control medication-resistant depression and anxiety.
Glycine – used in treatment of lower pituitary gland function and progressive muscular dystrophy; also treats hypoglycemia by stimulating the release of glucagon, which mobilizes glycogen and is subsequently released into the bloodstream as glucose.
Proline – one of main components of collagen, and important for proper functioning of joints and tendons; used to treat skin problems, such as acne or ulcers; helps maintain cardiac muscle and assists with tissue repair and wound healing; may be useful in preventing atherosclerosis and other heart problems.
Aspartic Acid – helps rid the body of harmful ammonia in, which helps protect the nervous system.
Serine – a precursor of tryptophan and serotonin and necessary for metabolism of fats; plays major role in many biosynthetic pathways, including serine proteases such as trypsin and chymotrypsin, digestive enzymes. Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome often have low serine levels.
Vitamin B1 (thiamin) – an essential nutrient required for the biosynthesis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and gamma-aminobutyric acid; thiamin deficiency causes non-descript symptoms such as irritability, confusion, malaise and weight loss; long-term deficiency may lead to optic neuropathy, beriberi, Korsakoff’s syndrome, and can be fatal if not treated.
Vitamin B2 – an essential nutrient for energy metabolism and utilization of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and ketone bodies; riboflavin deficiency is rare in developed countries, yet sub-clinical deficiency may present as skin conditions in/around the mouth, photophobia, and scrotal dermatitis; long-term deficiency in children results in reduced growth.
Vitamin B6 – is a co-factor in amino acid metabolism and is necessary for conversion of glycogen into glucose; deficiency results in dermatologic and neurologic conditions and although rare, the elderly and alcoholics are susceptible.
Vitamin B12 – is essential to the formation of red blood cells, maintenance of the brain and nervous system, and metabolism of every cell in the body; mild deficiency can cause fatigue, poor memory and depression; long-term deficiency can cause irreversible damage to the brain and nervous system.
Vitamin E – is an antioxidant that halts the production of reactive oxygen species during fat oxidation; deficiency may cause retinopathy, peripheral neuropathy, myopathy, ataxia, and impaired immune response.
Vitamin A – is essential for growth and development, a healthy immune system and good vision; deficiency results in impaired vision, particularly night blindness, and more frequent ear infections, urinary tract infections, and Meningococcal disease.
Vitamin C – is an important co-factor in collagen synthesis and may function as an antioxidant; deficiency causes scurvy.
Vitamin D3 – is important for the intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate which increases bone mineral density; deficiency causes osteomalacia in adults, or rickets in children.
Folic Acid (folate) – is essential for DNA synthesis and repair, cell growth and division, and the manufacture of healthy red blood cells; deficiency may result in embryonic neural tube defects; adults can experience a plethora of health problems including nerve damage, cognitive decline, depression, anemia, hyperhomocysteinemia, and possibly cancer.
Pantothenic Acid – an essential nutrient for the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats; deficiency is exceedingly rare and typically observed in starvation cases.
Beta-carotene– is a precursor to Vitamin A whose absorption is restricted to the duodenum of the small intestine; absorption efficiency is between 9-22%.
Calcium – an essential element in cellular physiology and the heart’s electrical conduction system; in conjunction with Vitamin D, is used in the mineralization of bone and teeth; long-term deficiency results in rickets and osteoporosis
Chromium – food and water contains trace amounts of trivalent chromium, which is possibly required in trace amounts for sugar and lipid metabolism.
Copper – an essential trace element vital to health and necessary for the proper functioning of organs and metabolic processes.
Iron – essential to the formation of hemoglobin and myoglobin.
Magnesium – manipulates biological polyphosphate compounds such as ATP, DNA, and RNA, making magnesium ions essential to all living cells; hundreds of enzymes require magnesium ions to function.
Phosphorus – an essential component of DNA, RNA, ATP, and the phospholipids that form all cell membranes; deficiency (hypophosphatemia) causes muscle and neurological dysfunction and disruption of muscle and blood cells due to a lack of ATP.
Potassium – potassium ions are necessary for all living cells, and ion diffusion is an essential mechanism in nerve transmission; deficiency results in various cardiac dysfunctions.
Selenium – a component of the antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase; necessary for the conversion of the thyroid hormone thyroxine (T4) into triiodothyronine, and although rare, a deficiency may cause symptoms of hypothyroidism.
Sodium – an essential element for all living cells and ion diffusion is an essential mechanism in nerve transmission.
Sulfur – an essential element for all living cells, and is necessary for metabolic reactions; is present in the vitamins biotin and thiamine; enzymes and antioxidants such as glutathione and thioredoxin; and in all proteins, as the amino acids cysteine and methionine.
Zinc – an essential trace element in RNA and DNA metabolism, signal transduction, gene expression, and apoptosis regulation.
Probiotics are microorganisms (“good” bacteria) necessary to maintain a healthy gut; help to re-colonize the gut after the pathogenic (“bad”) bacteria has been eliminated.
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