Colostrum Research

General Information


Ahmed, L, Islam, SN, Khan, MN, Huque, S, Ahsan, M. Antioxidant micronutrient profile (vitamin E, C, A, copper, zinc, iron) of colostrum: association with maternal characteristics. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics  50(6):357-358 (2004).  Maternal characteristics had no influence on the profile of nutrient profile of antioxidants in colostrum.

PubMed Reference    PMID:15537722

Blum J, Hadorn U, Sallmann H, and Schuep W. Delaying colostrum intake by one day impairs plasma lipid, essential fatty acid, carotene, retinol and a-tocopherol status in neonatal calves. Journal of Nutrition 127(10):2024-2029 (1997).  When colostrum feeding is delayed one day for newborn calves, levels of essential fatty acids and other lipids were much lower than in calves which received colostrum normally.

PubMed Reference   PMID:9311960

Davis, PF, Greenhill, NS, Rowan, AM, Schollum, LM. The safety of New Zealand bovine colostrum: nutritional and physiological evaluation in rats.  Food and Chemical Toxicology 45(2):229-236 (2007).  Bovine colostrum supplemented at 3% and 10% of normal rat chow produced no observable toxicological or histopathological abnormalities.

PubMed Reference    PMID:17046134

da Camara CC, Dowless GV. Glucosamine sulfate for osteoarthritis. Annals of Pharmacotherapy 32(5):580-587 (1998).

PubMed Reference    PMID:9606480

Diehl HW, May EL. Cetyl myristoleate isolated from Swiss albino mice: an apparent protective agent against adjuvant arthritis in rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 83(3):296-299 (1994).

PubMed Reference    PMID:8207671

Efigenia M, Povoa B, Moraes-Santos T. Effect of heat treatment on the nutritional quality of milk proteins. International Dairy Journal 7:609-612 (1997).  Heating milk, including pasteurization and boiling, does not significantly affect the biological value of milk proteins.

FitzGerald RJ, Murray BA, Walsh DJ.   Hypotensive peptides from milk proteins.  Journal of Nutrition 134(4):980S-988S (2004).  Casokinins and lactokinins from milk and colostrum are potent ACE inhibitory peptides.  Several human studies have associated these milk protein-derived peptides with statistically significant hypotensive effects (i.e., lower systolic and diastolic pressures).

PubMed Reference    PMID:15051858

Jochims K, Kaup FJ, Drommer W. Immunoelectron microscopical demonstration of the absorption of colostral IgG by small intestinal enterocytes in newborn rats. Research in Veterinary Science. 57(1):146-151 (1994). Gold-labeled IgG moleculues attached to the walls of coated vesicles, suggesting a receptor-mediated transport of colostral IgG in the first portion of the small intestine, while micro-pinocytotic transport prevailed further along in the small intestine.

PubMed Reference    PMID:7817002

Joseph M, Flesch A. Research shows colostrum to be one of nature's most potent, broad-spectrum substances. Chiropractic Journal (1998).

Kelly GS. Bovine colostrums: a review of clinical uses.  Alternative Medical Review 8(4):378-394 (2003).  Bovine colostrum has higher amounts of immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines and nucleosides than mature milk.  It is also rich in oligosaccharides, antimicrobials, and immune-regulating factors.  Research indicates that colostrum can have a beneficial effect on improving body composition, athletic performance, diarrhea (particularly in people with immune deficiency), gastrointestinal disturbances, and infectious diseases.

PubMed Reference    PMID:14653766

Kim JH, Jung WS, Choi NJ, Kim DO, Shin DH, Kim YJ. Health-promoting effects of bovine colostrum in Type 2 diabetic patients can reduce blood glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and ketones. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 20(4):298-303 (2009). Bovine colostrum is known to enhance immune function, reduce fat accumulation, and facilitate the movement of glucose to muscle. This study demonstrates that bovine colostrum can decrease levels of blood glucose and ketones and reduce cholesterol and triglycerides, all of which may cause complications in Type 2 diabetes.

PubMed Reference    PMID:18602824

Klagsbrun M. Human milk stimulates DNA synthesis and cellular proliferation in cultured fibroblasts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 75(10):5057-5061 (1978). Human milk contains a mitogenic substances that stimulates DNA synthesis and cell division in mouse and human fibroblasts (connective tissue cells).  This activity is destroyed by digestive enzymes (trypsin and chymotrypsin) but not chemicals such as urea or very low pH (1).

PubMed Reference    PMID:283415

The Story of Influenza, in Knobler S, Mack A, Mahmoud A, Lemon S: The Threat of Pandemic Influenza: Are We Ready? Workshop Summary. Washington, D.C.: The National Academies Press, 60–61 (2005).

Korhonen H, Pihlanto A.   Technological options for the production of health-promoting proteins and peptides derived from milk and colostrum.  Current Pharmaceutical Design 13(8):829-843 (2007).  Review of current and potential applications of colostrum and milk proteins for human nutrition and promotion of human health.

PubMed Reference    PMID:17430184

Kume S, Tanabe S. Effect of parity on colostral mineral concentrations of holstein cows and value of colostrum as a mineral source for newborn calves. Journal of Dairy Science. 76(6):1654-1660 (1993). Concentrations of minerals, including calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, copper and manganese, were highest immediately after birth and stabilized after third lactation.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8326034

Le Dividich J, Herpin P, Paul E, Strullu F. Effect of fat content of colostrum on voluntary colostrum intake and fat utilization in newborn pigs. Journal of Animal Science. 75:707-713 (1997). Voluntary intake of colostrum in newborn pigs did show any correlation to fat content of the colostrum.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9078487

Li-Chan E, Kummer A, Losso J, Kitts D, Nakai S. Stability of bovine immunoglobulins to thermal treatment and processing. Food Research International. 28:9-16 (1995). Pasteurization retained 59-76% of IgG content compared to raw milk, while canned evaporated milk and ultra-high temperature sterilized milk showed very little IgG activity.

Löser C.  Polyamines in human and animal milk.  British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl 1):S55-8 (2000).  Polyamines, including spermidine, spermine and putrescine, are highly regulated polycations involved in cell growth and differentiation.  They play an important role in the maturation of the newborn’s intestine.  They are present in all mammalian milk and colostrum.

PubMed Reference    PMID:11242447

McConnell MA, Brooks HJL, Borissenko MB, Buchan GA. A comparative study of immunoglobulin levels and anti-inflammatory activity in four milk products. Journal of Dairy Science, Publication forthcoming.

Poland G. Vaccines against avian influenza – a race against time.  New England Journal of Medicine 354(13):1411-1413 (2006).

Schlimme E, Martin D, Meisel H. Nucleosides and nucleotides: natural bioactive substances in milk and colostrum.  British Journal of Nutrition 84(Suppl 1):S59-S68 (2000).  Nucleosides, nucleotides and nucleobases are all present in colostrum and milk.  They act as regulators in the body.  Nucleotides affect immune responses in infants.  Nucleotides and nucleosides contribute to iron absorption in the gut and influence saturation and elongation rates in fatty acid synthesis.  Ribonucleosides modulate cell proliferation and apoptosis (cell death).

PubMed Reference    PMID:11242448

See DM, Gurnee K, LeClair M.  An In Vitro Screening Study of 196 Natural Products for Toxicity and Efficacy.  Journal of the American Nutraceutical Association 2(1):25-39 (1999).  A comparative study of 196 natural products showed that many demonstrated toxicity and cytochrome p450 activity (indicative of liver toxicity) while having little or no beneficial action.  Some natural products, including Echinacea, and glyconutrient-containing products, showed the highest degree of NK cell stimulation.  Bovine colostrum showed significant enhancement of NK cell cytotoxicity.

Thompson W, Shay D, Weintraub E, Brammer L, Cox N, Anderson L, Fukuda K. Mortality associated with influenza and respiratory syncytial virus in the United States. Journal of the American Medical Association 289(2):179–186 (2003).

Tyshenko MG.   Bovine spongiform encephalopathy and the safety of milk from Canadian dairy cattle.  The Veterinary Record 160(7):215-218 (2007).  The risk of contracting new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease through the consumption of milk is negligible.

PubMed Reference    PMID:17308017

Vetrugno V. Safety of milk and milk derivatives in relation to BSE: the lactoferrin example.  Biometals 17(3):353-356 (2004).  Milk, colostrum and tissues of the bovine mammary gland are classified in the category of no detectable infectivity by the Committee for Proprietary Medicinal Products of the European Commission and WHO.  Milk and milk derivatives, such as lactoferrin and lactose, are unlikely to present any risk of infection with BSE or any other transmissible spongiform encephalopathy.

PubMed Reference    PMID:15222490

Wit JN. Nutritional and functional characteristics of whey proteins in food products. Journal of Dairy Science 81:597-608 (1998).

PubMed Reference    PMID:9565865

Warny M, Fatima A, Bostwick E, Laine DC, Lebel F, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-Clostridium difficile retains C. difficile toxin neutralizing activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut. 44(2):212-217 (1998).  IgG from bovine colostrum with C. difficile toxin neutralizing activity maintains this activity as it passes through the digestive tract, indicating that it resists digestion.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9895380

Yamamoto A, Wada O, Suzuki H. Purification and properties of biologically active chromium complex from bovine colostrum. American Institute of Nutrition. 118(1):39-45 (1987). Bovine colostrum has a chromium-binding substance in it similar in nature to that found in mammalian liver.

PubMed Reference    PMID:3275760

Zhang T, Iguchi K, Mochizzuki T, Hoshino M, Yanaihara C, Yanaihara N. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone-associated peptide (GAP) immunoreactivity in bovine colostrum. Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine. 194(3):270-273 (1990). GAP is present in colostrum, indicating that Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is synthesized and processed in mammary tissue.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2192372

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