Colostrum Research

Gastrointestinal Health


Arteaga A, Santa-Olalla P, Sierra MJ, Limia A, Cortes M, Amela C. [Epidemic risk of disease associated with a new strain of Clostridium difficile.] Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica Epub ahead of print (2009).  Clostridium difficile (C. dificile) infections have increased in North America and Europe over the last few decades, mostly as a result of antibiotic abuse. A new strain of C. difficile, known as toxigenic type III, has increased pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance resulting in the threat of an epidemic if immediate steps are not taken. [Article in Spanish]

PubMed Reference    PMID:19386385

Bjarnason I, Peters TJ, Wise RJ. The Leaky gut of alcoholism: Possible route of entry for toxic compounds. The Lancet. 1(8370):179-182 (1984). Intestinal permeability was tested in alcoholic patients and compared to non-alcoholic controls. Increased permeability persisted from 4 days to two weeks following abstention of alcohol.

PubMed Reference     PMID:6141332

Borody TJ, Surace R, Warren E.  Tunnel vision in the bowel.  Center for Digestive Diseases (2001).  Review of irritable bowel syndrome, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and its etiology, including infective agents such as Shigella and Campylobacter.  Infections of the gut are difficult to treat because no antimicrobial therapy is available that is effective against Clostridia spores.  Only bovine colostrum has proven clinical efficacy in eradicating intestinal pathogens, such as rotavirus, and may help control the infections seen in chronic disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome due to the number of biologically active components in colostrum.  The growth factors in colostrum help heal intestinal erosions and ulcerations.  It also contains anti-inflammatory factors and is nutrient rich.  Colostrum may be used alone or in combination with other anti-inflammatory and/or immune substances.  Future research should focus on identifying immune strategies, novel delivery systems and identification of the bioactives in colostrum.

Carver JD, Barness LA.  Trophic factors for the gastrointestinal tract.  Clinical Perinatology 23(2):265-285 (1996).  Factors in colostrum which promote the development of the GI tract in newborn infants also help protect against such diseases as Crohn’s disease, colitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and diarrhea.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8780905

Crissinger K., Kvietys P. Granger D. Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal mucosal permeability. Journal of Internal Medicine Supplement 732:145-154 (1990). The intestinal mucosa has multiple layers of protection to prevent the absorption of unwanted and/or dangerous materials. These include the unstirred water/mucous layers, apical and basolateral cell membranes of the epithelial cell, the intercellular junctions, the intestinal matrix, and the capillary and lymphatic endothelia. It is able to restrict the movement of solutes as small as 3Å while allowing permeation by some larger molecules such as albumin, which has a 36Å radius.  Permeability is significantly altered in certain physiologic and pathologic conditions.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2200413

Deitch E. The Role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure. Archives of Surgery 125(3):403-404 (1990). Intestinal barrier failure plays a key role in the development of systemic infections and multiple organ failure.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2407230

Doe W. An overview of intestinal immunity and malabsorption. American Journal of Medicine. 67(6):1077-1084 (1979). Intestinal immune responses occur at external mucosal surfaces. Much of the immunity stems from Peyer's patches - large collections of lymphocytes in the intestine which take in antigens, sensitize lymphocytes to them, and then release the lymphocytes into the intestinal lumen.

PubMed Reference     PMID:117706

Galland, L. Leaky Gut Syndromes: Breaking the Vicious Cycles. Townsend Letter for Doctors 145:62 (1995, Aug/Sept). Toxins ofmany kinds can increase intestinal permeability. These include alcohol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, arthritis medications, and many others), cytotoxic drugs used to treat cancer, corticosteroid drugs, and, by their action on bowel flora, antibiotics.

Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair Group, Imperial College, London (2003).  Unpublished research.  In an in vitro experimental study, colostrum stimulated intestinal cell growth and reestablished a healthy epithelial layer following injury.  In an in vivo experimental study, colostrum powder was also shown to reduce gastric injury.

Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Campieri, M. Probiotics in gastroenterology. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 18(2):235-239 (2002). Probiotics are of benefit in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases, such as viral diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea (shigellosis), antibiotic-associated diarrhea, H. pylori infection, irritable bowel syndrome, radiotherapy-associated diarrhea, and inflammatory bowel disease.

PubMed Reference    PMID:17033293

Graul T, Cain AM, Karpa KD. Lactobacillus and bifidobacteria combinations: A strategy to reduce hospital-acquired Clostridium difficile diarrhea incidence and mortality. Medical Hypotheses 73(2):194-198 (2009) (e-pub). Clostridium dificile- associated disease (CDAD) is increasing, particularly in hospital and other health-related settings. Routine use of probiotics in such settings could be used to protect patients from CDAD by normalizing disrupted gastrointestinal flora.

PubMed Reference    PMID:19359104

Hollander D. Intestinal permeability, leaky gut, and intestinal disorders.  Current Gastroenterology Reports 1(5):410-416 (1999).  Patients with Crohn’s disease have abnormally increased permeability in their gastrointestinal tract, which has a direct correlation to the activity, extent, and distribution of the disease.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10980980

Imhoff A, Karpa K. Is there a future for probiotics in preventing Clostridium difficile-associated disease and treatment of recurrent episodes? Nutrition in Clinical Practice 24(1):15-32 (2009). C. dificile-associated disease (CDAD) is associated with morbidity, mortality, and high medical costs, making it one of the most ecologically relevant microorganisms of the present time. Over the past 5 years virulence has increased, as has antibiotic resistance.  One way of controlling CDAD in hospital settings particularly may be probotics as probiotics have shown promise in controlling this infection.

PubMed Reference    PMID:19244145

Johnson S. Recurrent Clostridium difficile infection: A review of risk factors, treatments, and outcomes. Journal of Infection Epub ahead of print (2009). C. difficile infections are difficult to treat for various reasons, and there is no clear treatment strategy. Part of the treatment problem is that antibiotics used to kill C. difficile also kill the normal, healthy flora in the GI tract. Alternative treatment agents that attack C. difficile but leave healthy flora intact are needed.

PubMed Reference    PMID:19394704

Kim JW, Jeon WK, Yun JW, Park DI, Cho YK, Sung IK, Sohn CI, Kim BI, Yeom JS, Park HS, Kim EJ, Shin MS. Protective effects of bovine colostrum on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats.  Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14(1):103-107 (2005).  NSAIDs given to animals have much the same effect as they do in humans, namely, increased intestinal permeability, increased enteric bacteria levels, villous loss, and loss of enteric protein and albumin.  Supplementation with bovine colostrum reduced the increase in intestinal permeability, the enteric bacteria overgrowth, the lose of proteins, and villous damage.

PubMed Reference    PMID:15734716

Kim K, Pickering LK, DuPont HL, Sullivan N, Wilkins T. In vitro and in vivo neutralizing activity of human colostrum and milk against purified toxins A and B of Clostridium difficile. Journal of Infectious Diseases 150(1):57-62 (1984). Supernates of human milk were tested for neutralzing activity against C. difficile toxins A and B. Results indicate that colostrum and milk protects newborns against these toxins, probably through secretory IgA.

PubMed Reference    PMID:6747345

Kuijper EJ, Coignard B, Tull P. Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 12(Suppl 6):2-18 (2006). C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges from diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. It is mainly associated with previous antibiotic exposure and is a common hospital-associated infection. Outbreaks are difficult to control and increased surveillance, particularly in susceptible populations, is essential.

PubMed Reference    PMID:16965399

Le Jan C, L'Haridon R, Madelaine MF, Cornu C, Asso J. Transfer of antibodies against the CPD virus through colostrum and milk. Annales de Recherces Vétérinaires 9(2):342-346 (1978) Antibodies specific to CPD virus were transferred to newborn lambs via colostrum and milk from the mother.

PubMed Reference    PMID:570818

Libby DB, Bearman G. Bacteremia due to Clostridium difficile - review of the literature. International Journal of Infectious Diseases Epub ahead of print (2009). C. difficile infections do not occur solely in the colon. It has also been associated with bacteremia, intra-abdominal abcess, osteomyelitis, visceral abcess, empyema, reactive arthritis, and pseudomembrane formation in the small intestines. Cases of bacteremia are often associated with underlying gastrointestinal problems.

PubMed Reference    PMID:19398213

Lilius EM, Marnila P. The role of colostral antibodies in prevention of microbial infections. Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases 14(3):295-300 (2001). Mammalian colostrum offers passive protection against a variety of microbial pathogens. Preparations from immune milk and colostrum have proven effective in the prevention of various gastroenteric infections without the risk of transferring disease from mother to infant.

PubMed Reference    PMID:11964846

Lonnerdal B.  Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins.  American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(6):1537S-1543S (2003).  The proteins found in colostrum can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in the gut.

PubMed Reference    PMID:12812151

Lyerly DM, Bostwick EF, Binion SB, Wilkins TD. Passive immunization of hamsters against disease caused by Clostridium difficile by use of bovine immunoglobulin G concentrate. Infection and Immunity 59(6):2215-2218 (1991). A colostral IgG preparation from cows immunized against C. difficile protected hamsters against C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).

PubMed Reference    PMID:2037383

McGauley GA Abnormal intestinal permeability: An aetiological factor in chronic psychiatric disorders. British Journal of Psychiatry 150:853-856 (1987). Certain chronic psychiatric disorders are characterized by a change in intestinal permeability.

PubMed Reference    PMID:3446322

Naaber P, Lehto E, Salminen S, Mikelsaar M. Inhibition of adhesion of Clostridium difficile to Caco-2 cells. FEMS Immunology and Medical Microbiology 14(4):205-209 (1996). Bovine colostrum inhibited the adhesion of C. difficile to cells in culture.

PubMed Reference    PMID:8856319

Pironi L, Miglioli M, Ruggeri E, Levorato M, Dallasta MA, Corbelli C, Nibali MG, Barbara L. Relationship between intestinal permeability to EDTA and Inflammatory activity in asymptomatic patients with Crohn's disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 35(5):582-588 (1990). There is a direct correlation between increased interstinal permeability and Crohn's disease.

PubMed Reference     PMID:1691967

Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, Calnan DP, Adenekan RO, Johnson W, Goodlad RA, Marchbank T. Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut 44(5):653-658 (1999). Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs are effective against arthritis but cause gastrointestinal injury. Taking colostrum prior to NSAIDs reduced gastric injury by up to 60%.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10205201

Playford RJ, MacDonald CE, Johnson WS. Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(1):5-14 (2000). Colostrum or peptides derived from it are useful for the treatment of a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, NSAID-induced gut injury, and chemotherapy-induced mucositis.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10871554

Prosser C, Stelwagen K, Cummins R, Guerin P, Gill N, Milne C.  Reduction in heat induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability in rats by bovine colostrum and goat milk powders.  Journal of Applied Physiology 96:650-654 (2004).  Bovine colostrum healed “leaky gut” in an experimental rat model using heat induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability.

PubMed Reference    PMID:14527963

Purup S, Vestergaard M, Pedersen O, Sejrsen K. Biological activity of bovine milk on proliferation of human intestinal cells.  Journal of Dairy Research 74(1):58-65 (2007).  Bovine milk contains a number of biologically active components that affect growth development of human intestinal tissue.  The degree of activity depended on the stage of lactation.

PubMed Reference    PMID:16978432

Roberts K, Smith CF, Snelling AM, Kerr KG, Banfield KR, Sleigh PA, Beggs CB. Aerial dissemination of Clostridium difficile spores. BMC Infectious Disease 24:8-7 (2008). C. difficile is a frequently occuring infection in healthcare facilities that is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in elderly patients in those facilities. Environmental contamination has long been known as the primary means of infection, but no proof of aerial dissemination existed. In this study, clear evidence of sporadice aerial dissemination of C. difficile spores was found, suggesting an important reason why these infections are so persistent in healthcare settings.

PubMed Reference    PMID:18218089

Rona Z.  Altered Immunity and Leaky Gut Syndrome.

Rooney PJ, Jenkins RT, Buchanan WW. A short review of the relationship between intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology 8(1):75-83 (1990). The hypothesis that there is a relationship between intestinal permeability and inflammatory joint disease is examined.

PubMed Reference    PMID:2189626

Sangild P. Intestinal Macromolecule Absorption in the Fetal Pig after Infusion of Colostrum in Utero. Pediatric Research 45 (4 Part 1):595-602 (1999). Colostrum stimulates both the absorption of macromolecules its cessation (intestinal closure) in the fetal and neonatal pig intestine.

PubMed Reference    PMID:10203154

Wada N, Nishida N, Iwaki S, Ohi H, Miyawaki T, Taniguchi N, Migita S. Neutralizing activity against Clostridium difficile toxin in the supernatants of cultured colostral cells. Infection and Immunity 29(2)545-550 (1980).

PubMed Reference    PMID:7216424

Walker WA. Antigen absorption from the small intestine and gastrointestinal disease. Pediatric Clinics of North America. 22(4):731-746 (1975).  When increased quantities of toxic or antigenic macromolecules are able to cross the mucosal barrier in the gut, local or systemic disorders can result.

PubMed Reference    PMID:1196680

Walker WA. Pathophysiology of intestinal uptake and absorption of antigens in food allergy. Annals of Allergy 59(5 Pt 2):7-16 (1987). An important adaptation of the gastrointestinal tract to the extrauterine environment is its development of a mucosal barrier against the penetration of proteins and protein fragments. To combat the potential danger of invasion across the mucosal barrier, the infant must develop within the lumen and on the luminal mucosal surface an elaborate system of defense mechanisms that act to control and maintain the epithelium as an impermeable barrier to the uptake of macromolecular antigens. Fortunately, nature has provided a means for passively protecting the vulnerable newborn against the dangers of a deficient intestinal defense system: mother’s colostrum and milk. It contains not only antibodies and viable leukocytes, but many other substances that can interfere with bacterial colonization and prevent antigen penetration.

PubMed Reference    PMID:3318588

Warny M, Fatimi A, Bostwick EF, Laine DC, Lebel F, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut 44(2):212-217 (1999). A bovine colostrum IgG concentrate specific against C. difficile resists digestion in the GI tract and retains its toxin-A binding abiliity and neutralizing activity is retained.

PubMed Reference    PMID:9895380

Werbach MR. Intestinal health relieves rheumatoid arthritis. Nutrition Science News. 3:396 (1998).

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