Arteaga A, Santa-Olalla P, Sierra MJ, Limia A, Cortes M, Amela C. [Epidemic risk of disease associated with a new strain of Clostridium difficile.] Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiologia Clinica Epub ahead of print (2009). Clostridium difficile (C. dificile) infections have increased in North America and Europe over the last few decades, mostly as a result of antibiotic abuse. A new strain of C. difficile, known as toxigenic type III, has increased pathogenicity and antibiotic resistance resulting in the threat of an epidemic if immediate steps are not taken. [Article in Spanish]
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Borody TJ, Surace R, Warren E. Tunnel vision in the bowel. Center for Digestive Diseases (2001). Review of irritable bowel syndrome, including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and its etiology, including infective agents such as Shigella and Campylobacter. Infections of the gut are difficult to treat because no antimicrobial therapy is available that is effective against Clostridia spores. Only bovine colostrum has proven clinical efficacy in eradicating intestinal pathogens, such as rotavirus, and may help control the infections seen in chronic disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome due to the number of biologically active components in colostrum. The growth factors in colostrum help heal intestinal erosions and ulcerations. It also contains anti-inflammatory factors and is nutrient rich. Colostrum may be used alone or in combination with other anti-inflammatory and/or immune substances. Future research should focus on identifying immune strategies, novel delivery systems and identification of the bioactives in colostrum.
Carver JD, Barness LA. Trophic factors for the gastrointestinal tract. Clinical Perinatology 23(2):265-285 (1996). Factors in colostrum which promote the development of the GI tract in newborn infants also help protect against such diseases as Crohn’s disease, colitis, necrotizing enterocolitis and diarrhea.
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Crissinger K., Kvietys P. Granger D. Pathophysiology of gastrointestinal mucosal permeability. Journal of Internal Medicine Supplement 732:145-154 (1990). The intestinal mucosa has multiple layers of protection to prevent the absorption of unwanted and/or dangerous materials. These include the unstirred water/mucous layers, apical and basolateral cell membranes of the epithelial cell, the intercellular junctions, the intestinal matrix, and the capillary and lymphatic endothelia. It is able to restrict the movement of solutes as small as 3Å while allowing permeation by some larger molecules such as albumin, which has a 36Å radius. Permeability is significantly altered in certain physiologic and pathologic conditions.
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Deitch E. The Role of intestinal barrier failure and bacterial translocation in the development of systemic infection and multiple organ failure. Archives of Surgery 125(3):403-404 (1990). Intestinal barrier failure plays a key role in the development of systemic infections and multiple organ failure.
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Doe W. An overview of intestinal immunity and malabsorption. American Journal of Medicine. 67(6):1077-1084 (1979). Intestinal immune responses occur at external mucosal surfaces. Much of the immunity stems from Peyer's patches - large collections of lymphocytes in the intestine which take in antigens, sensitize lymphocytes to them, and then release the lymphocytes into the intestinal lumen.
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Galland, L. Leaky Gut Syndromes: Breaking the Vicious Cycles. Townsend Letter for Doctors 145:62 (1995, Aug/Sept). Toxins ofmany kinds can increase intestinal permeability. These include alcohol, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (aspirin, ibuprofen, arthritis medications, and many others), cytotoxic drugs used to treat cancer, corticosteroid drugs, and, by their action on bowel flora, antibiotics.
Gastrointestinal Inflammation and Repair Group, Imperial College, London (2003). Unpublished research. In an in vitro experimental study, colostrum stimulated intestinal cell growth and reestablished a healthy epithelial layer following injury. In an in vivo experimental study, colostrum powder was also shown to reduce gastric injury.
Gionchetti, P, Rizzello, F, Campieri, M. Probiotics in gastroenterology. Current Opinion in Gastroenterology 18(2):235-239 (2002). Probiotics are of benefit in the prevention of gastrointestinal diseases, such as viral diarrhea, Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, traveler's diarrhea (shigellosis), antibiotic-associated diarrhea, H. pylori infection, irritable bowel syndrome, radiotherapy-associated diarrhea, and inflammatory bowel disease.
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Kim JW, Jeon WK, Yun JW, Park DI, Cho YK, Sung IK, Sohn CI, Kim BI, Yeom JS, Park HS, Kim EJ, Shin MS. Protective effects of bovine colostrum on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug induced intestinal damage in rats. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition 14(1):103-107 (2005). NSAIDs given to animals have much the same effect as they do in humans, namely, increased intestinal permeability, increased enteric bacteria levels, villous loss, and loss of enteric protein and albumin. Supplementation with bovine colostrum reduced the increase in intestinal permeability, the enteric bacteria overgrowth, the lose of proteins, and villous damage.
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Kuijper EJ, Coignard B, Tull P. Emergence of Clostridium difficile-associated disease in North America and Europe. Clinical Microbiology and Infection 12(Suppl 6):2-18 (2006). C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD) ranges from diarrhea to life-threatening pseudomembranous colitis. It is mainly associated with previous antibiotic exposure and is a common hospital-associated infection. Outbreaks are difficult to control and increased surveillance, particularly in susceptible populations, is essential.
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Lonnerdal B. Nutritional and physiologic significance of human milk proteins. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 77(6):1537S-1543S (2003). The proteins found in colostrum can promote the growth of beneficial bacteria such as Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria in the gut.
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Lyerly DM, Bostwick EF, Binion SB, Wilkins TD. Passive immunization of hamsters against disease caused by Clostridium difficile by use of bovine immunoglobulin G concentrate. Infection and Immunity 59(6):2215-2218 (1991). A colostral IgG preparation from cows immunized against C. difficile protected hamsters against C. difficile-associated disease (CDAD).
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Pironi L, Miglioli M, Ruggeri E, Levorato M, Dallasta MA, Corbelli C, Nibali MG, Barbara L. Relationship between intestinal permeability to EDTA and Inflammatory activity in asymptomatic patients with Crohn's disease. Digestive Diseases and Sciences. 35(5):582-588 (1990). There is a direct correlation between increased interstinal permeability and Crohn's disease.
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Playford RJ, MacDonald CE, Johnson WS. Colostrum and milk-derived peptide growth factors for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 72(1):5-14 (2000). Colostrum or peptides derived from it are useful for the treatment of a wide variety of gastrointestinal conditions, including inflammatory bowel disease, NSAID-induced gut injury, and chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
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Prosser C, Stelwagen K, Cummins R, Guerin P, Gill N, Milne C. Reduction in heat induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability in rats by bovine colostrum and goat milk powders. Journal of Applied Physiology 96:650-654 (2004). Bovine colostrum healed “leaky gut” in an experimental rat model using heat induced gastrointestinal hyperpermeability.
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Warny M, Fatimi A, Bostwick EF, Laine DC, Lebel F, LaMont JT, Pothoulakis C, Kelly CP. Bovine immunoglobulin concentrate-clostridium difficile retains C difficile toxin neutralising activity after passage through the human stomach and small intestine. Gut 44(2):212-217 (1999). A bovine colostrum IgG concentrate specific against C. difficile resists digestion in the GI tract and retains its toxin-A binding abiliity and neutralizing activity is retained.
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